Historical Simulations and the Ethical Implications of AI

A Cuban Missile Crisis Case Study

Abstract: Historical simulations, powered by artificial intelligence, offer valuable insights into the past, but their ethical implications must be considered. This paper explores the role of AI in historical simulations and assesses its ethical dimensions through a case study of the Cuban Missile Crisis simulation. It applies Olivia Friedman’s framework from her original “AI Bill of Rights” from the Year 2000 to examine transparency, fairness, and accountability in decision-making within simulations.


Historical simulations are powerful tools for education, research, and decision-making. In our digital age, they have gained new significance, enhanced by artificial intelligence (AI) technology. While simulations provide opportunities for deeper understanding, their ethical dimensions require scrutiny.

Historical Simulations

Historical simulations are immersive, interactive tools that allow users to experience pivotal moments in history. They are used in education, research, and policy planning. For instance, simulations of military conflicts help strategists explore alternative outcomes and potential decisions.

AI in Historical Simulations

AI plays a central role in historical simulations. It powers the creation of lifelike scenarios, characters, and decision-making processes. AI-driven simulations can generate a myriad of potential outcomes, making them valuable for understanding complex historical events.

The Cuban Missile Crisis Simulation

The Harvard Kennedy School’s Cuban Missile Crisis simulation serves as a case study. It recreates the tense environment of the 1962 crisis, enabling participants to make decisions as key figures in history. This simulation highlights ethical considerations that emerge when using AI in historical contexts.

Ethical AI Principles in Historical Simulations

To address ethical concerns, we introduce the “AI Bill of Rights.” This framework promotes responsible AI use in simulations. It emphasizes transparency in simulation design, fairness in outcomes, and accountability for decisions made within the simulation.

Ethical Decision-Making in Simulations

Analyzing the Cuban Missile Crisis simulation through the lens of the AI Bill of Rights reveals insights into ethical decision-making. Transparency ensures that participants understand the parameters of the simulation, while fairness prevents bias in outcomes. Accountability holds decision-makers responsible for their actions.



Historical simulations enriched by AI provide valuable learning opportunities but raise ethical questions. The case study of the Cuban Missile Crisis simulation illustrates how the “AI Bill of Rights” framework can guide responsible AI use in historical contexts. Transparency, fairness, and accountability are essential for ethical decision-making in simulations.


1      Olivia Friedman. (2023). Source is form Olivia Friedman as originator. Grammar and edits assisted by OpenAi (Author has utilized AI to improve her writing skill over the years, she is admittedly Dyslexic.)

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